The Conversion of Saul by Michelangelo Buonarotti HCC

The Social Instinct and its Consequences Globalization and Society
Syllabus, teaching tools, resources for students


Slave market, by unknown artist (19th.c.?), as shown by Prof. Clark: compare slave market in Equiano

Globalization and Society

HCC H1C: Honors 29081 meets Monday and Wednesday 2-3:20 in HH 232. (We will have some lab classes, TBA in HH 217.)

Class mailing list

Vivian Folkenflik
HIB 197
(in main HCC office; entry near Artsbridge)



Class Policies: Class Policies Spring 07

Globalization and Society

Note: Complete Syllabus, Lecture Notes and Reading/Study Questions available on



Oxford English Dictionary (OED)

Encyclopedia Britannica




Monday, April 2: First day of classes

Reading: Introduction to St. Paul's Epistles, St. Paul's Epistles: 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians (HCC Reader, pp. 161, 180-208)

Wednesday, April 4

Reading: St. Paul's Epistles: Romans, ch. 1-5 and Ephesians; (HCC Reader, pp. 162-166, 209-213); Acts of the Apostles 17:16-34 (NRSV) and 17:22-31 (KJV) (HCC Reader, pp. 216-217)
AND BE SURE TO READ: Writer's Handbook, "Who is Speaking?" (pp. 139-142)

Writing: St. Paul's Epistles: Reading Questions ON NOTEBOARD

Diagnostic: In-class writing: Can you think of a phrase, word, song lyric, quotation, that could be a word or phrase *you* live by?

  • What would these words be?
  • When, where, how did you first see or hear them? [Family tradition, soccer coach, movie, song lyric, sacred text, book or story, ad, political campaign ?]
  • What did they mean to you then ?
    And now? Same? Different? Why?


"Think globally, act locally." Introduction to Rhetoric.

Map above comes from PBS site ("From Jesus to Christ") with links to Paul, rhetorical overview, role of women:


Rhetorical Analysis: Note Handbook Assignments Every Week!

Burke's Pentad: A Powerful Five-Part Model for Analysis. Handbook: "This complex rhetorical context is thus shown to produce multiple constructions of the speaking 'I'" (141):

Burke's Pentad Central Question Analysis Detail from text or image that tells you so Importance or interest: relate to text or image as a whole, "larger picture" ?    
Agency How is this act persuasive?        


Prof. Mailloux's terms for Analysis of the "Self" (141) Definition Example -- Finding Claim-Evidence-Warrant Work in the Text
IDENTITY interpretation (performed by yourself or others) of your being, who you are/aren't, including similarity and difference Mailloux defines Paul as 'a Greek-speaking Christian convert, a diasporic Jew and a Roman citizen' -- all terms that Paul himself might use to relate to those who may be different from him in various ways. How does Equiano actively identify himself in the Mosquito Prince episode? Which words tell you so (top 169)? How do others see his identity or position of difference on board ship? Ask: Difference from whom?
ROLE - external social function recognized by community Paul: 'embattled missionary' (Handbook 141). You might be a student. What is Equiano's social role, in the time frame of the Mosquito Prince episode? Which words tell you so?
SUBJECTIVITY - internal consciousness of yourself , feelings about who you are Might conflict with your "identity" -- The Handbook gives the example of American ex-slave Frederick Douglass, who remembers that he was "once a slave on the Eastern Shore of Maryland" as conflictual with his "identity as one who is 'enjoying what the wisest and best of the world have bestowed" (142). What subjective internal feelings does Equiano seem to have about himself during the Mosquito Prince episode? Which words tell you so?






Monday, April 9

Reading: St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, ch. 6-16 (HCC Reader, pp. 167-179);
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano NOTE: OUR CLASS is assigned EQUIANO'S ATTEMPT TO INSTRUCT THE MOSQUITO PRINCE (169-170).

Writing: Pre-Writing Grid for Essay #7: Where would you find material for this grid in our passage?


King James Version (KJV) Corinthians I 7:21 New Revised Standard Version (Reader 184-185 )
"Art thou called being a servant? care not for it: but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather." "Were you a slave when called? Do not be concerned about it. Even if you can gain your freedom, make use of your present condition now more than ever."
Note: this is the version Equiano would have read. What might this have meant to Huck Finn's Jim, in the USA "Bible politics" of the 1840s? What might this have meant to Huck Finn's Jim, in the USA "Bible politics" of the 1840s?

Wednesday, April 11

Lecture notes:

Religion < relegere or <relegare: what's the difference?

"First contact": Making sense of others... Ten-year-old Equiano wonders: what are "whites"? Are they spirits? (52-53)


Reading: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano ; Writer's Handbook, "Audience and Purpose" (pp. 143-146, AND REVIEW 142-143.)

Writing: Discovery Task #5 due. Olaudah Equiano and the Art of Spiritual Autobiography
Adam Potkay
Eighteenth-Century Studies , Vol. 27, No. 4, African-American Culture in the Eighteenth-Century. (Summer, 1994), pp. 677-692.
Stable URL:


Lab work HH 217


RESOURCES: LINKS you can use


Encyclopedia Britannica

Optional: Scholar Brycchan Carey's website with biography of Equiano, other background info:

[A scholarly debate: Where was Equiano born, and does it matter? See Carey's counterargument: ]

Optional: Foxe's Book of Martyrs: What do you think would be the Mosquito Prince's response?

LAB WORK: What are some points you might make about Equiano's rhetoric describing his interaction with the eighteen-year-old "Mosquito Prince"?

1. Find a place next to your partner and sign up for a team # on the sign-up sheet at my desk.

2. Access the Noteboard and locate the "Forum" with your team # on it. Each team will be assigned four lines of the Mosquito Prince episode. Find yours and mark it in your book. Circle a few interesting keywords or phrases right away.

3. Get into Word and do teamwork to analyze keywords and phrases of your lines.Your goal is to have something to contribute at the end of class. You may want to think E-L-P-T-Pl, or you may try for a claim about identity, role, subjectivity. Use the Pre-writing Grid for tips.

4. Copy-paste your work to the Noteboard. Sign both names.

5. If time allows, you may "Reply" to your own posting by adding individual responses to the passage as a whole: : What's the point or purpose of Equiano -- as author -- telling his readers about his attempt to instruct the Prince, which is a failure? Steven thinks... Stephanie thinks....


QUOTE Keyword or phrase] Is this a word or phrase spoken by eitherEquiano or the Prince in 1775? Or is Equiano as author telling us things he knows now?? Does this build Equiano's Ethos, authority to speak [to the Prince or to readers]?

Logos: Vocabulary, logic? Is anyone using logic (good or bad) here? Use of facts, tropes, numbers to prove point? Arguments?Metaphors? References to reading?

Pathos -- does Equiano make an emotional appeal to the Mosquito Prince... or the reader... or both? Importance of Time? How old was Equiano then? What difference does that make? What's the time frame now? Importance of Place? Does the location matter: on board ship, on land? What particular places on board ship?


4. How important are books, reading, literacy to this instruction? Ask: What books does Equiano use in this episode? 

LAB WORK: What are some points you might make about Camara's rhetoric persuasively making a point about gender or sainthood in describing Ignatius's behavior in battle (21), response to chivalry books (23) or interaction with the Moor (30)? Find a place next to your partner and access Word and the Noteboard, as before.

2. With your partner, choose one of the three passages above. Designate the person who did NOT type last time to be the scribe THIS time. Find your passage, mark it in your book, and identify BOTH THE PASSAGE AND YOUR TEAM at the top of your Word document. Circle a few interesting keywords or phrases right away.

3. Do teamwork to analyze keywords and phrases of your lines.Your goal is to come up with a claim or claims you can support with evidence from the text. You may want to think E-L-P-T-Pl, or you may try for identity, role, subjectivity.

4. Copy-paste your work to the Noteboard FORUM for Loyola Lab Work.. REMINDER: Sign both names.

5. If time allows, you may "Reply" to your own posting by adding individual responses to the passage as a whole: Steven thinks... Stephanie thinks....





WEDNESDAY, APRIL 25 -- Essay will be due Friday, 4/27, HIB 185, 1 pm. This is the main Core Course office. Look for a box with my name on it, and our class # 29061. Ask an administrator if you don't see the box. BE SURE TO THANK THE STAFF!!!

 3.Metaphor [met’-a-phor]: from meta “beyond, over” and pherein “to carry”A comparison made by referring to one thing as another.  Example: "No man is an island" —John Donne


Week Six

Tekakwitha: Making sense of events in Cholenec's historical document

Visual: What sense did Prof. Strasser make of her identity in Cholenec's painting of Catherine Tekakwitha?

Event or other material that happened as described in text (page#?) Catherine Tekakwitha's response, if any is given? Could this be related to part of a male or female saint's story ? What sense does this make in terms of Iroquois culture? How your group makes "sense" of this event?
Her mother was captured and adopted        
Smallpox, effects of the disease (marks and disappearance)        
Catherine as an "orphan"        
Women's work as practiced by Iroquois women        
Baptism or re-naming ceremony        
Accusation of adultery        
Mentorship relation with Anastasie        
Relationship with companion Marie-Therese        
Oratory in the woods        
Flagellation or self-mortification        
Refusal to eat        
Little girl taken into the cold water        
Inspiration to other Iroquois        


Tekakwitha Making Sense of CT

Planning your Research Project #8


Overview To Do FOR YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT. Check the prompt for #8, as well as the links on your research guide. Many helpful resources are available through the UCI Libraries Homepage, such as:

Week 7: Annotated Bibliography due (will be graded, but can be updated for final draft).

Materials to Use for an Annotated Bib: Write 4 sentences about each source you are using.

  • Primary Sources:

  • 1-2 texts or materials that can be directly related to local-global cultural exchange
    1-3 additional primary sources 
  • Secondary Sources:

  • 1 scholarly book (Optional but Recommended: Use Antpac and Melvyl, or see the Library Reserve Collection)
    1-2 articles xeroxed from scholarly journals in the library -- NB: Be sure to return the volume to the orange shelves after you finish xeroxing, so the volume can be reshelved for others to use. You will submit these xeroxed pages with your project folder, so save them.
    1-4 articles from on-line journal collections available on databases (through library links).
No more than three non-journal Internet sources may be used!  All Internet sources must be properly cited!

Week Seven: The Stone, the Codex, the Poems...

"Making Sense" of the Stone: How to interpret it?

Hyperlinked Sunstone: click on glyphs in

Codex symbols with Spanish annotations:

Aztec date: Flint knife, Rain, Flower, Crocodile

Flint-knife, ......?, flower, crocodile

Aztec date: Wind, House, Lizard, Snake

Wind, ...?, lizard, snake

To learn more about the codex shown in lecture, check this link: Aztec Codex


"Untitled Poem. Aztec Account of the Origin of the World" [HCC Reader, 394-396]
"The Founding of Tenochtitlan", and "The Founding of Tenochtitlan. Explanation" [HCC Reader, 397-406]
"Untitled Poem about Huitzilopochtli's Birth" [HCC Reader, 407-413]. Handbook, 165-177).

For Monday: READ assignment above. Also read and bring YOUR HANDBOOK CHAPTERS on LIBRARY RESEARCH METHODS [165-172] and DEVELOPING RESEARCH STRATEGIES [173-177]. Assign a letter grade to both sides of the handout from Wednesday's class (student annotated bib sheet). One of the One Annotated Bib is about this mural:

Office appointments...


First page of the Rabinal Manuscript of the Popol Vuh, kept in the Newberry Library, Chicago, the Ayer Collection

"This is the account of how all was in suspense, all calm, in silence..."





LAB CLASS WEDNESDAY: Annotated Bib and Discovery Task #6 are due today!

Discovery Task #6

If possible: Bring a book to class that you find useful for #8

ESSAY 8: RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE UCI LIBRARIES includes a partial list of scholarly books, arranged by subject area, that are available in the Library Stacks and Reserves.  Keep in mind that this is not a complete list.

 Primary Sources Quiz - self-correcting online exercise

Primary Sources Tutorial

Ranking Sources Exercise with Aztec Materials

Tenochtitlan, the Mexico City that Bernal Dias and Cortes might have seen, as imagined by twentieth-century mural artist Diego Rivera; enlargement (and note the city in the background!) on:

For maps, timelines, and scholarly materials on Mexico before and after the

Monday Reading: The Sunstone, Poems...

Images from Prof. Sefami's lectures this week have been posted to our  picture gallery under the category "Aztecs" at

"Making Sense" of the Hyperlinked Sunstone: click on

For more, click on AZTEC IMAGES


Week Eight Reading "The Conquest of New Spain," a first contact story by Bernal Diaz: We find a translator: Aguilar & Guerrero ransom attempts (57-61). We take, baptize and pick women, including good-looking translator Marina/Malinche (82-87). We enter the beautiful city, conquer and kill Moctezuma, and get the hidden treasure (216-248, 278-312).


And think about this "Great Temple" image...Aztec layer, modern city layer... Do you remember Freud's Rome?

First Contact: The Return of Quetzalcoatl? Religious Syncretism: Making inside sense of the outside
“In a universe accustomed to seeing men sacrificed to the gods, nothing amazed the Indians more than the sight of a god who had sacrificed himself to men. It was the redemption of humankind by Christ that fascinated and really defeated the Indians of the New World. The true return of the gods was the arrival of Christ. Christ was the recovered memory that in the beginning it was the gods who sacrificed themselves for the benefit of humankind. The misty memory, engulfed by the somber human sacrifices ordained by Aztec power, was now rescued by the Christian church. The result was flagrant syncretism, the blending of Christian and aboriginal faiths, one of the cultural foundations of the Spanish American world.”
[Carlos Fuentes, The Buried Mirror, 146]


Prospectus due Monday 5/21. Note: Dr. Losh will hold special office hours to advise students on their research projects: Tuesday 2-4 and Thursday 12-2. I am available for consultation as usual.

Model Sample Prospectus here on Siqueiros mural "La America Tropical": enlargement, click here (; prospectus here.


MALINCHE: Background for Malinche/Marina lab work on Wednesday:  80-82,
85-87, 153, 172, 197, 199, 247, 391.
Some images of Malinche (from G. Fogli):

OTHER WOMEN in _The Conquest of New Spain_

          1] Good-looking woman from Jamaica 28 becomes our messenger

        2] Gonzalo's wife speaks angrily 61 against his returning to us

        3] 20 women [including "princess" Marina] given to us, 80, 82

        4] More women given to us by Tlascalans 175-176 [friar says: but
                don't accept women until Tlascalans give up sacrificing!]

        5] Tlascalan "princesses" Dona Luisa and Dona Elvira given to
                Alvarado and Velasquez 178

        6] Eight women given to us by various towns that are also
                protesting Aztec rapes/kidnappings of pretty women, 210;
                Spaniards will be "putting an end" to Mexican rape in
                subject territory 309

        7] Montezuma gives us women to make our bread 221 [Sp. have other
                women as servants at various points]

        8] Montezuma's two cacique wives + mistresses, habits etc 225

        9] Chieftains' daughters live like nuns near cue, wear robes
                made entirely of featherwork, weave for Montezuma, etc.
                until they are married; female god of marriage 230

        10] Dias asks Sp. page to get Montezuma to give him a pretty girl,
                is given Dona Francisca, is grateful to M., 254

        11] Montezuma gives Cortes one daughter, but C cannot marry her
                286; another is married to Guatemoc 309

        12] Women who die at the bridge on flight from Mexico [City}
                include M's daughter; relief at survival of Marina, Luisa,
                and the        only Spanish woman in Mexico, but no mention of
                Francisca, 302

        13] Cortes decides to auction women captives so that none of the
                soldiers will have a grievance against him, 310

        14] "a pretty woman or some such spoil" 330

        15] Indian women who refuse to return home when families find
                them, 409

Malinche as symbol of betrayal:
Prof. Sefami: Although treated with respect by Indians at the time of the conquest, Malinche will later be considered a traitor. The word malinchista is used in Mexico for those corrupted by foreign influences.
“If the Chingada is a representation of the violated Mother, it is appropriate to associate her with the Conquest, which was also a violation, not only in the historical sense but also in the very flesh of Indian women. The symbol of this violation is doña Malinche, the mistress of Cortés. It is true that she gave herself voluntarily to the conquistador, but he forgot her as soon as her usefulness was over… the Mexican people have not forgiven La Malinche for her betrayal”.   [Octavio Paz, The Labyrinth of Solitude, 1950]
“Malinche sold out her indio people by acting as courtesan and translator of Cortés, whose offspring symbolically represent the birth of the bastardized mestizo/Mexicano people. My mother then is the modern-day Chicana, Malinche marrying a white man, my father, to produce the bastards my sister, my brother, and I are. Finally, I —a half-breed Chicana— further betray my race by choosing my sexuality which excludes all men, and therefore most dangerously, Chicano men”. [Cherríe Moraga, “From a long line of vendidas: Chicanas and Feminism”, 1985]




Making Sense of La Malinche or Dona Marina

HCC 1C Folkenflik                              Name___________________
 Two images of Marina/La Malinche: one by muralist Jose Clemente Orozco (, one from tourist information (
“Making Sense” of La Malinche ó Doña Marina
Members of my group were:

  1. Two ways my group “made sense” of the story of La Malinche-Doña Marina, as represented by Bernal Diaz (a primary source):


  1. My own claim about the story:  I “made sense” of La Malinche- Doña Marina (as represented) by saying …:


    • The evidence I would use to support my claim from the primary source (give 1-2 lines and 1-2 sentences of support about each): 




5.In making this claim about La Malinche-Doña Marina, I think that Bernal Dias’s narrative (as a primary source) is trustworthy/untrustworthy because… 


  • If I related my claim to Prof. Sefami’s lectures (a secondary source! Check A-Z on how to cite this), I would use the part when Prof. Sefami said:



  • In interpreting the new experience of this narrative, did I “make sense” of it – to whatever degree – by using experiences, stories, myths or religious texts, poems, movies, feelings, information, models I already had inside, in Prof. Mailloux’s terms? 



8. How does it compare or contrast with one specific other story that I have studied in HCC, or that I know?


Week Nine Reading: Cabeza de Vaca

Lab work: Do you see Marina/Malinche as interpreter? mediator?

Image analysis (first slide)

Cabeza de Vaca: Understanding the Other


            1. World perspectives:
                        1.1. Martin Waldseemuller: what does his map show you about the geographical mistake Cabeza made?
                        1.2. Cabeza de Vaca: Prof. S. says that he gets to understand Indians through a three-stage process.
            2. Purpose of the expedition. Panfilo de Narvaez, the leader, is supposed to...

Process of understanding.

            1. Inversion. Counterpoint to Cortés’ success. Thirteen ways in which CdeV is different from Cortes... compare and contrast!

            2. Participation in the culture as:

                        2.1. Slave. What does CdeV learn in his year of captivity? (48,52)
                        2.2. Merchant. How does CdeV take advantage of his situation to become a trader over the course of six years? (76)
                        2.3. Shaman. CdeV is forced to become a shaman (49)

            3. Confrontation.

                        3.1. Cabeza de Vaca as defender of the Indians (112-114).
                        3.2. Survivors as hybrids. Is CdeV associating himself with the "Christians" any more, as he originally did? Who is "we"? (110 )

WE [as viewed by Indians , 113-114 THEY [viewed by Indians]
are praised are lying (about CdeV and about being "masters of the land")
come from where sun rises come from where sun sets (
cured the sick kill the healthy
are naked have armor, horses
do not take from you, return everything, are left with nothing steal [114]


Peaceful Conversion [?] CdeV and companions tell Indians that "Christians would do them no harm" if they convert: again, where is CdeV placing himself and his companions? Compare to Requerimiento? Is this a peaceful message, or a threat? 118.

Supernatural events in narrative Possible analogies to Biblical stories
Resuscitation: always a success? 72


Burning tree Burning bush: Moses at Mt. Sinai?
"Bad Thing" (Mala Cosa) 73-74 Devil?
new experience familiar story?

Confrontation: Cabeza makes contact with Spaniards again: how does he identify himself and them?

They know that they had arrived into civilization (Mesoamerica, now New Spain) when: “[H]e had found real and permanent houses, and that those people ate beans and squash, and that he had seen maize. This was the thing in the world that made us happiest” [100].
In the book, Spaniards are identified as Christians. There is a distinction between “Christians” and “we”.
As in the case of Jerónimo de Aguilar, Cabeza de Vaca  is not recognized by the Christians: “They went on staring at me for a long space of time, so astonished that they could neither speak to me nor manage to ask me anything” [110].
Because of his long journey, Cabeza de Vaca is able to understand the Indians’ view of the Spaniards: “[The Indians] told us how on many occasions the Christians had entered the land and destroyed and burned the villages and carried off half the men and all the women and children, and that those who had managed to escape from their hands were wandering and in flight” [107-108].



Cabeza de Vaca becomes a defender of the Indians:
“We had many and great altercations with the Christians, because they wanted to make slaves of the Indians we had brought” [112].
“Six Christians came with us, bringing five hundred Indians who had been enslaved” [120].
The Indians perceive the survivors as a different group of people, a third party: they are not considered Christians, yet they are not Indians either.



nThe Indians mourn their dead children for a long time. "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (p. 47)
nAnalysis Level One: (not integrating quote at all)  Try to avoid doing this whenever possible because this quote serves no purpose.  It does not add to an argument, does not support.  There is no connection and no explanation.
nThe Indians mourn their dead children for a long time. "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (47). The Indians wait an entire painful year before they stop mourning the loss of their dearly departed child.
nAnalysis Level Two: (restate quote, sometimes with flowery language) Summarizing or restating information that is already provided is redundant and detracts from an argument.  Focus on making a connection between the claim (sentence prior to the quote) and the quote.  Focus on the meaning of individual words in the quote.  Explain what it means and how it supports your claim..
nThe Indians mourn their dead children for a long time. "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (47). The Indians honor the dead child after an entire year by washing their own bodies clean.
nAnalysis Level Three: (surface level only) The claim or topic sentence is beginning to move into an analysis, but only in a superficial way.  Work to go out on a limb- make an interpretive statement or claim that someone may or may not agree with, and then explain, elaborate, make connections, etc.
nThe Indians reveal a sense of rebirth in their mourning: "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (47).
nAnalysis Level Four: (assuming the reader sees what you see)  It is a very common mistake that the writer thinks that no further explanation is necessary because the reader certainly understands what you are getting at.  Don’t make that assumption.  It is true that some readers might see where a writer is headed, but it is more often the case that a reader, without proper guidance will make their own assumptions about meaning and head in an entirely different direction.  As a writer you are in charge of leading the reader through your argument.  You express what you are claiming, provide the proof, and most importantly explain what the relationship between the claim and evidence is, why it is important, how it supports your thesis, etc.  Don’t assume the reader knows what you mean.  As a writer it is your duty to provide the reader with that information.
nThe Indians reveal a sense of rebirth in their mourning: "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (47). The Indians take care to "wash themselves" at the end of the year.
nAnalysis Level Five: (point out interesting features, but do not follow up on your reasoning)  This is a good start.  As a reader I anticipated clarification and elaboration following the claim and the quote.  This is a writer’s opportunity to really drive a point home.  Now is the time to convince the skeptical reader that your argument is strong and valid.
nThe Indians reveal an unconscious sense of rebirth and social resurrection with the unusual conclusion to a typical period of mourning: "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (47). The act of "washing themselves clean" symbolizes a new beginning with a purity not possible during the period of mourning. That the entire village partakes in both the mourning and the washing ceremony indicates a sense of social rebirth, as if their society is starting over. However, the act is not performed in a conscious attempt to impart a feeling of rebirth; for the Indians, the act simply feels like an appropriate conclusion to mourning. Cabeza de Vaca similarly shows no sign of awareness of the metaphor, for he offers no comment beyond reporting the custom.
n*Analysis Level Six: (dig into the quote, let the quote craft an insightful claim)  This is the goal to shoot for.  Pay attention to the descriptive and specific terminology that is used (“unconscious sense of rebirth” not just rebirth and “social resurrection” instead of just resurrection).  This is concise and interpretive.  It is a claim that is arguable, from which a writer can explicate and get their “analytical” hands dirty (in a figurative sense of course).
nCabeza de Vaca notices a Christian metaphor of rebirth in the Indians’ mourning practices: "At the end of a year, they honor the dead child and wash themselves clean of the soot on their bodies" (47). The act of cleansing signifies a new beginning and recalls the effect of water on a baptized child. Moreover, the Indians would weep three times a day, and the number three is reminiscent of the Holy Trinity, which the Christian de Vaca would certainly take note of.
nAnalysis Level Seven: (TOO FAR --- stretching???)  Be careful not to make undocumented claims that you can’t substantiate about an author’s intentions or feelings when they wrote a particular piece.  Unless they told us what they meant, or unless we read a direct quotation written by them about their goals, we can only speculate or theorize guardedly about authorial intent.

Lab Week 9.

nWith your partner: Using a PASSAGE from the list below: CHOOSE ONE OR TWO SENTENCES FROM THE PASSAGE. Write a claim, select a couple of key words or a short phrase to use as evidence and write a paragraph that works toward level 6 explication.
nThemes to consider:  gender, translation, interpretation, mediation, making inside sense of the outside, inversion, participation, confrontation.


n1.p. 46: first paragraph "five Christians who were encamped on the beach > to kill those of us who were left."


2.pp. 47-48: “Each man has a recognized wife > they hold it a bad thing to see or speak to each other."

3. p. 52: "And in exchange and trade for this > because of my fame among them."

4. p. 60: "These Indians do this because > they preferred to kill their daughters rather than let a possible enemy be born to them."

5. pp. 113-114 "But the Indians paid little or no heed > in contrast to the others."

6. p. 118: "We told them that we called the being they were speaking of God, and that they must call Him so > This happened in the presence of the scribe they had there, and many witnesses."

7. p. 120: "It will not be so very difficult to do > the richest and best of everything in the land is near there."

8. p. 120: "We stayed in the city of San Miguel > jousting with canes and bullfights."


Week 9: Working Draft due WEDNESDAY 5/30. Peer review assigned, due Monday. Use blue forms distributed in lab class, or link above. You may e-mail or exchange the drafts in hard copy with a partner. One copy must be turned in to me.

Note: Dr. Losh will hold special office hours to advise research projects: HIB 188 (Wednesday) 3-5, and Thursday 1-3.

Two very different sample opening paragraphs written by students for #8: click here . How do these paragraphs introduce both local and global factors of their research essays?


Week Ten Reading: Sor Juana de la Cruz

Monday: return peer review.

Verbal analysis: A discussion question this week ask you why Sor Juana find it "necessary" to speak of herself and other women, in order to defend her right to knowledge -- and to writing. To answer this question, consider her options in terms of the social norms of her society for women. What interpretation of the words of Corinthians 14:34-35 (Reader 191) must she re-interpret?

Visual analysis: What do these "Castas" images from colonial Mexico tell you about social expectations and norms in terms of race? class? gender? Sor Juana was a criolla, but of possibly illegitimate birth, though she was a lady-in-waiting at Court; information about her father is lacking. What did that mean for her options in marriage, had she wished to marry?

LACMA exhibit "Inventing Race," 2004.Images from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art exhibition "Inventing Race: Casta Painting and Eighteenth-Century Mexico; La invencion del mestizaje" (2004). Castas paintings are a Spanish American pictorial genre. These paintings of Mexican families may have been produced for potential investors back in Spain. The curator Ilena Katzew writes in the exhibition booklet: "Many of the concerns of the enlightened reformers and intellectuals of Bourbon Spain are addressed in casta painting by including scenes that show a healthy and industrious society with its members engaged in multiple occupations." What else do they show you?

Reading visual images: All the images below have captions identifying the child in specific terms according to the list of "castas" categories. The thumbnail above is a detail from the full Casta painting by Miguel Cabrera: "De Espanol y Albina, Torna Atras (From a Spaniard and an Albina, a Return-Backwards child." How does the image change, in your opinion, if you see the entire work (below)? (The caption in gold lettering is translated below.) The child of this colonial family is identifed: "From Spaniard and Albina, Return-Backwards." What would you say about the identity, role, or subjectivity of the child, or one of her parents?Check your list for the definition of "Albina."

Casta painting, Barcino. LACMA exhibit "Inventing Race," 2004.

The child of this colonial family is identifed "From Spaniard and Chamiza, Barcino." The baby is the "barcino." (Painter anonymous.) How many markers do you see of this family's social class? What would you say about the identity, role, or subjectivity of someone in this family?

Casta painting by Juarez. LACMA exhibit "Inventing Race," 2004.

Casta painting of colonial family by Juan Rodriguez Juarez: this child, whose father is called "mulatto," is identified as a "mulatto torna atras." (The gold lettering is above the father's hat.) How do you interpret his expression? Is he singing, or crying? What would you say about the identity, social role, or subjectivity of the child, or one of his parents?

You can learn more about this exhibit at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, curated in 2004 by scholar Ilona Katzew, from the NPR link:

More information and images about casta paintings on

En perseguirme, Mundo, ¿qué interesas?
¿En qué te ofendo, cuando sólo intento
poner bellezas en mi entendimiento
y no mi entendimiento en las bellezas?
Yo no estimo tesoros ni riquezas;
y así, siempre me causa más contento
poner riquezas en mi pensamiento
que no mi pensamiento en las riquezas.
Y no estimo hermosura que, vencida,
es despojo civil de las edades,
ni riqueza me agrada fementida,
teniendo por mejor, en mis verdades,
consumir vanidades de la vida
que consumir la vida en vanidades.
In hounding me, World, what do you gain?
In what do I offend you, if I only seek
To put beauty in my understanding
And not my understanding in beauty?
I esteem neither treasures nor riches,
And thus find more contentment
Putting riches in my thoughts
Than in putting my thoughts in riches.
I prize not comeliness, which, vanquished,
Becomes the civil spoils of time.
Nor do perfidious riches agree with me,
Judging it better, in truth,
To consume the vanities of life
Than to consume my life in vanities.
[Translated by Carl Good]

Background. Power struggle between bishops.
            1. Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz.
            2. Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas.
            3. Carta Atenagórica: the title Santa Cruz gave to Sor Juana's critique of Viera when he published it without her permission.
                       REPRIMAND or Admonishment by "Sor Filotea" to Sor Juana

"Sor Filotea" or Santa Cruz's prologue to the Carta atenagórica admonished Sor Juana in two ways:
1.As a nun and as a woman, she should leave secular letters and dedicate herself to the Holy Scripture. [The clerics saw a contradiction between the religious and devoted life of a nun, and the pursuits of an intellectual and writer.]
2.Women should be allowed to study, but they have to keep themselves to the “position of obedience”, and “prevent the risk of arrogance in our sex, which is always inclined to vanity” [Sor Filotea’s letter-prologue to Carta atenagórica].

Letter to Sor Filotea: Sor Juana's Reply

IDENTIFYING HER ETHOS: By pointing out that undeservedly her work had been chosen (“Worthy of Athena,” is the title by the bishop), Sor Juana wittily and ironically is also addressing the fact that she personally had been chosen to be a target of the priests (pawn of the bishops!). She identifies herself as a “rational being” [39], since women were seen in the realm of the irrational.
LOGOS Strategy: YES/BUT: She had “nearly resolved to leave the matter in silence” [41], BUT nevertheless decided to answer. She chooses to illustrate the meaning of silence through the sacred (a man is not able to utter words to explains the sublime), yet at the same time she also means [read between the lines] silence as a way of repression:
THESIS ABOUT SILENCE: “…of those things that cannot be spoken, it must be said that they cannot be spoken, so that it may be known that silence is kept not for lack of things to say, but because the many things there are to say cannot be contained in mere words.” [43]
PATHOS: Where will you locate the pathos (rhetoric arousing both pain and pleasure in the audience) in this document...??? Autobiography? Pleasure in learning? Pleasure in other female excellence? Defense of enjoyment of poetry? Pain? What she will do now?

1. Introduction. Excess and irony (see above) .            

2. Autobiography.
                        2.1. Passion toward learning.
                        2.2. Becoming a nun.
                        2.3. Writing about sacred matters.
           3. Female excellence.
            4. Defending women’s right to knowledge.
            5. Defense of poetry.


Prof. Sefami's images from lecture will be available on

Sor Juana's Silence:  Is Sor Juana's promise to keep silent a mark of empowerment, or defeat? How does she manipulate the motif of silence at strategic points in her letter in order to make her argument?

p. 39 (middle):  “The second obstacle” to end of paragraph.
p.42 (bottom):  “And therefore” to end of paragraph.
p. 51 (middle):  “ I took the veil” to end of paragraph.
p. 59 (middle):  “What could, however, serve” to end of paragraph.
p. 83 (middle):  “In this regard the Apostle...” to end of following paragraph (“fatten my head”).
p. 87 (middle):  “This point should be taken” to end of paragraph.
p. 89 (bottom):  “All this requires” > “study in private” (91).


Week 10: Last lecture:

Mailloux: First contact and "making sense"

1] "Think globally/Act locally": this relationship from our local to the global is complex, and shifts

Examples: alternation (Paul: altar is local, good news is universal, global); sometimes one factor will trump (be more important) or erase the other.

Local-global Images: Tekakwitha: complementarity of two cultures in image

Sor Juana frontispiece: between Europe and America, but under Spanish motto ("Ultra Plus"):

2] "Making sense" of the new in first contact: we always make inside sense of the outside (using things we already know to understand what is new), and we often do this with shared stories.

3] "Interpretation all the way down, rhetoric all around, ideology here there and everywhere..." (and rhetoric is the best possible use of the available means of persuasion for a particular audience).

Strasser: Religion and gender norms, balancing tradition and innovation

Sefami: Examples of how we tell, interpret, translate stories

1] Aztec stories, the dominant but not the only stories of Mesoamerica at the time of the Conquest

2] Two different "stories" by Spaniards trying to make sense of their contact with Amerindians: Bernal Diaz and Cabeza de Vaca.

3] Two stories of women: Diaz tells "story" of Dona Marina as Indian interpreter/mediator/sexual partner/wife for Spaniards, Sor Juana tells her own story as an intellectual who wanted to make sense of the entire universe, but has been told to stop...

Message for the end of your freshman year: How has "your story" changed since last September? P.S. I have really loved working with each of you, individually and as a group. Keep in touch, and very best wishes for the summer. See you next week, and again in the fall! VF


Final draft due either Wednesday 6/6 in class, or Friday 6/8 by 12 noon in HIB 185

        Research Essay Submission Checklist 
 1.  Have I revised and corrected my annotated bibliography? 
 2.  Have I checked to make sure that all my direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries have the correct in-text citations? 
 3.  Is my Works Cited page properly formatted?  (Including interviews, if taken.)
 4.  Have I proof-read my essay for mechanics and grammar? 
 5.  Have I submitted my essay, Works Cited page, and revised and corrected Annotated Bibliography to
 6.  Is my research submission compiled in the following order?  Essay on top, then Works Cited page, then Annotated Bibliography?  And are these
stapled or paper-clipped together?
 7.  Have I included the Peer Review sheet, and clipped it to the Prospectus and Working draft? (Should be last items in the folder.)
 8.  Have I put everything into a folder or envelope with my name on it? 
 9.  Congratulations! You are the proud inventor, producer, designer, and
writer of an Individual Research Project.



Final exam: Wednesday, 6/13 at 10:30-12:30 in HH 231. Bring two large bluebooks. Eat breakfast.

Part I. Answer SIX of the following EIGHT questions in 3-5 sentences each. Be sure to respond to each of your six questions directly with specific information from texts, lectures, and class discussions. Write as legibly as you possibly can in a timed situation. This segment of the exam is worth 50 points.

Part II. Answer ONE of the following two questions in a substantial, well-organized essay that takes account of each part of the question. Be sure to provide specific information about the texts and authors that you discuss. Your opinions are always interesting, but an examination requires actual reference to the material being tested, so answers that do not demonstrate knowledge of the material will not receive credit. This section is worth 25 points.

Part III. Read the following passage from one of our Spring texts very carefully and then write a thoughtful essay in which you analyze this passage, indicating its localized meaning or function and also its relation to or development of themes of the text as a whole and to the themes of this quarter in HCC. You may bring other readings into the discussion but your close reading is the central part of this part of the exam. A good answer will give a clear and detailed reading of the passage as a unit and as part of a larger context. This section is worth 25 points.

TIP LIST: You might include some or all of the following:

  • Identify the passage: who wrote it, when, where, why
  • Particular meaning or function or theme of passage: Your claim about why it is important for this particular author to present this passage to his or her audience
  • Identify relevance and importance of any historical or mythological or fictional characters named (including Juana’s mother for instance)
  • Identify references to social role, race or ethnicity, gender
  • Keywords of the passage that indicate important themes
  • Ethos – how the authority of the speaker is presented
  • Logos – structure of the argument, causality, how points are made or backed up or reinforced with wordplay and metaphor (even poetry does this)
  • Pathos – appeal to the emotions of the audience
  • Time – in the passage? Is the writer looking back, or writing about his/her present experiences & reactions?
  • Place – in the passage? Is another place represented, described, evoked?
  • Relate to other works we have read this quarter – or Fall or Winter?

FINAL EXAM: Wednesday, June 13, 10-30-12:30 in HH 231 (note room!)









The Mission

Clip in class shown from The Mission: 1986 film: A Jesuit missionary church is defended by natives and Jesuits against colonial authorities and slavers in the rain forests (circa 1750). This movie won awards for its music, and has some beautiful visual shots. As a historian, you might ask: How accurate is it? How responsibly does it represent the natives? Some issues and possible problems related to historians' understanding of Jesuits' global missionary enterprise. Stars Jeremy Irons, Robert de Niro, Cherie Lunghi.

FINAL EXAM: Wednesday, June 13, 10-30-12:30 in HH 231 (note room!)








Making sense of new (and old) stories: making sense as you tell a story, making sense as you listen...

What do you remember of Gilgamesh?

How would you re-tell the story of Malinche?

A Robinson Crusoe story about an individual "Cast Away" (2000), with Tom Hanks

...and one way we tell and hear that story: "Lo Bun Sun," from Maxine Hong Kingston's China Men

How did China Men end?

Close reading: Bookmarking favorite passages with Maxine Hong Kingston

Listening Winter 07: and showing Maxine Hong Kingston the copy of China Men we have been using...









TEXT OR IMAGE Paul’s letters Acts of the Apostles Equiano: St. Ignatius’s Autobiography
Genre or art form        
Historical context: where and when produced        
Thinking globally? Acting locally?        
Important points or keywords of message for the audience        
Strategies for persuading the audience        
Prescriptions for masculine or feminine roles?        
Using Moral Philosophy from Winter quarter: How we should act (normative) What we should do, as a prescriptive principle for behavior What I should do (about some specific issue: this chart says hunger, but what about slavery???)
Ethical Egoist View: what should a person do to act rightly? We each should promote ONLY our own individual interests... we don't owe anything to anyone else... I make sure there is enough to eat for myself (makes sense?) What about slavery???
Near and Dear View: what should a person do? We owe things not only to ourselves but also to our friends and families (but nothing to outsiders) I make sure there is enough to eat for my friends & family (makes sense?) What about slavery???
Zealous Patriot View: what should a person do? We owe things to ourselves, our families and friends, and our compatriots (nothing to foreigners) I make sure that all Americans have basically enough to eat (makes sense?) What about slavery???
Duty of Easy Rescue View: what should a person do? We owe it to all other persons to help prevent serious injury or death if we can do so easily (at small or reasonable cost to ourselves) -- charity lets us off reasonably

I give $5, or what I feel I can, to buy food for foreign children who might starve otherwise (makes sense?)

What about slavery???

Distributive Justice View: what should a person do? We owe it, as a matter of fairness and social justice (not charity!) to work for "large-scale institutional reform " and to "restructure the world economic system" so that everyone has basic goods... and rights that include the right to liberty... I owe it to people everywhere to make sure everyone has a basic share of food (makes sense?) What about slavery???
Paul's view: what should a person do to act rightly?   What about slavery???
Equiano's view: what should a person do to act rightly?   What about slavery???






Humanities Core Course 
Bring 2 copies to class

Prospectus Guidelines
A prospectus is a document that briefly describes the questions, materials, and methods a researcher will use in his or her research. This prospectus will function as a rough draft. It should be 3-5 pages of prose—no lists or bullet points.  It should include the following ideas.  Please reproduce or cut and paste the TEMPLATE at the end of this document, so that everyone’s prospectus has the same basic format.

A clear and concise introduction to the chosen topic:  It should present a clear and specific topic related to global exchange. Your introduction should consider the following questions (one or two sentences responding to each question):

--  What is the subject of your research paper and how is it defined?
--  Why are you addressing the topic? (What’s interesting and problematic about it? Why does it need to be studied?)
--  What is the proposed organization of your research paper? What type of analysis will you be conducting (Rhetorical? Historical? Causal, Visual, etc...? What techniques will you be using: Compare and Contrast, Close Reading?) 
--  Indicate (not in detail) what type of sources you have selected and why.

A working thesis:  This can be presented as tentative, as it may be modified as your research progresses.  Even a tentative thesis needs to present an arguable claim that can be supported by your readings of primary sources.

Present the main research question(s):  What intellectual questions are you attempting to answer about your given topic?  These are questions that your thesis helps to answer.  As you formulate these questions, you will want to consider the following questions about your questions:

--  Can they afford complex and arguable answers?
--  Can they be addressed within the space limits of your research paper? 
--  Are they formulated with consideration to the historical and cultural context?   
--  Have they been considered/ proposed/ ignored by other scholars?

Present Body argument of your research:  Here you should present an array of possible answers to the main questions you have raised.  Present the primary sources you have selected; indicate what type of evidence they offer you to formulate arguable claims in response to your research questions. The range of answers offered in this part of your prospectus should include those suggested by your secondary sources.  Present at least two experts in the field and the most relevant secondary sources to your topic.  Explain how you will accept, refute or integrate the claims of other scholars within your argument.

A final brief paragraph that points to where else your research might take you: This conclusive paragraph should address the question of how your research contributes to our knowledge of your chosen topic and how it might be expanded to address other intellectual questions.  Are there questions that remain unanswered?

These guidelines are designed to help you focus on your topic and structure your research paper. However, in writing the final paper, you may wish to change the order of ideas outlined above. Be prepared to expand your account of secondary sources; to weave the secondary sources into your argument; and to develop your consideration of primary sources substantially in light of your secondary reading.



Working Title:


Working Thesis:

Present Research Questions:

Present Body Argument of Research: